Few people constantly and purposefully conduct family archives of documents (a photo, video, audio, letters, awards, articles, publications). The memory embodied in the traditional paper form of the past is erased very quickly. For creation of good family archive the big efforts are required. For simplification the decision of this problem is necessary to use possibilities of a modern information technology which are a convenient translation tool of documents from personal archives in the electronic form, their ordering and reliable storage, for example on a compact disc. The family electronic archive can be easily added by new documents and is duplicated for each member of a family. Having such electronic archive, the present and future descendants will begin conducting the archives not with "blank leaf", and by replenishment of existing electronic documents. It will allow besides to avoid crushing on relatives of traditional "paper" archive of a family (sort) and to raise safety of documents in it.
Often you meet type phrases: "assorting an attic, has found an old picture album", "has come across a pack of old letters" and so forth And what will speak years through 50? "Checking the grand-dad's computer, has come across an old account on фотобакете"? "Has casually opened a folder My documents and has found a pack of the forgotten posts for a long time the died relative"?
Whether will live this all so much? It seems that the text, having got to virtual space, finds an eternal life: the paper will burn down or will decay, and information in the pure state anything cannot be made, while she lives in someone's brains. To damage it in any way it is impossible - but it is possible to forget. Electronic texts are live, while their carriers are live and features which them from carriers read are live. I.e. these texts too are adhered to the physical world, and even more strongly, than a paper because carriers become outdated faster.
I.e. everything that we on have written for the last years, will be live only in the event that someone everyone 5 will throw years it, say, from a server on a server, and to convert from old formats in the new.
At me the pack of 5-inch diskettes of 15-year-old prescription, since my student's years, with texts expensive to me once till now lies: my transfers, verses of friends, letters - I do not remember already with what. But you will not read them now – already there are no computers which read it, unless on a dump somewhere.
And here listings of some texts at me are stored till now, and anything it has not become. So it is not clear, what all the same our descendants will speak in 50 years - can, all the same - "assorting old letters"?
Modern technologies allow:
· to Place in electronic archive in the digitized kind a wide spectrum of documents: letters, manuscripts, official inquiries, certificates, certificates, diplomas, public statements, statements, speech, musical fragments, video images, photos, drawings, cards, reproductions, slides etc.
· to Organize documents being in electronic archive according to the scenario chosen by you and with possibility of their ordering on date, a place, events and other attributes in the catalogue of treelike structure.
· to Look through (automatically or manually) documents in полноэкранном or a window mode with a soundtrack and text comments according to the set scenario.
· Easily and quickly to supplement electronic archive with new documents, to spend inventory and reorganisation of documents of archive.
· to Store contents of documents of electronic archive on a compact disc (on a usual compact disc it is possible to place freely to 1000 photos, certificates, reading and writing, letters and images of other documents with corresponding inscriptions and speech explanatories of members of a family).
· to Unpack the documents containing in electronic archive, in a necessary kind or sequence with corresponding text comments, to create any picture albums, breaking photos and documents on various themes, events etc.
· to Provide interrelation of materials available in electronic archive with the concrete person in a patrimonial tree.
All documents which are necessary for storing further in family electronic archive, should be entered into a database of documents in the beginning. Before it to make, they should be digitized and placed on a computer hard disk. It can be made by means of computer technologies accessible now.
Ways of reception of the digital information:
· Scanning of documents on paper carriers
· Digital photographing of documents from paper carriers
· Numbering of video films
· Numbering of videocassettes from magnetic tapes
· Numbering of a sound by means of multimedia means
Conducting a database of persons
Very often in personal archives many documents contact quite concrete persons. Moreover, these persons can be united any related or other communications in groups, and the same document can be connected with each of them. All it leads to necessity of formation for family electronic archive of a database of persons. Creation of comments to documents (it is frequent in our old photos is not written even its year).
Service life of electronic data carriers
All electronic data carriers have the limited working life. Museums and collectors all over the world face this problem which is shown, for example, in «white rustling» video films. And records can sometimes be and are at all irrevocably lost.
Time of undivided rule of micrography as the unique technology allowing compactly and reliably to store legally significant documents comes to an end. Storage of documents on digital carriers gives the chance to use actively the information in business processes of the organisation and, thus, to transform activity on storage of the information from затратной into "earning". Electronic storage solves sharply standing both in business, and in the government a problem of an effective utilisation of the information.
It is difficult to micrography to compete to electronic documents there where speech comes about operative access, about the organisation of effective search and an exchange. Presently, when the information became the valuable goods, this advantage of electronic systems becomes frequent solving from the point of view of business. The micrography badly approaches as the basic technology and for the modern archives giving online access to the documents.
During the last years many large archival funds have been translated from microfilms and микрофиш in electronic formats. It is enough to recollect a number of large-scale projects on numbering микрофиш, including for the Russian state library and electronic library of the International agency on atomic energy МАГАТЭ.
The main reason of transition to digital storage that the information and documents became one of the major actives of the organisations. Fast search and extraction of the necessary information, its operative use is a both competitive advantage, and considerable money. On this background attenuation of the "film" industry and constant reduction in price of storage of figures are only minor factors pushing this process.
How the written down disks can long be stored?
This question at least once strutters to itself almost each user of the computer. From the moment of occurrence of optical disks, there is more than quarter of the century back, all researches speak about different results. We will try to find a right answer.
I have the factory audiodisks which have been let out still in 1980, and all of them still work, but I have noticed that written down even recently disks cease to be perceived by a player. It is a question about аудио-СD. On written down CDs-R disks various defects after a while are shown: some songs are passed by players, disks are not perceived, appear strange sounds and effect of an echo.
Whether compact discs from each other quality differ? Properly to write down CD-R disks and to store them that the information remained as it is possible longer?
Disks let out strongly differ in the factory way from written down. In the first the data physically пропечатаны by means of a press. The information on such carrier can be damaged only in case of its physical damage. In written down disks the layer changing at heating the colour or reflecting ability is used. These layers happen several kinds: фталоцианин, азо and цианин. All of them differ time of a life and stability.
All researches, which results we saw, were spent with the disks which are written down unitary, instead of with the rewritten. Many dear organisations say that time of a life of disks reaches several decades, and even centuries. For example, results of the governmental agency of USA NIST on research of stability of different carriers, eloquently speak about a difference between different kinds of substrates. But, despite detailed enough analysis of stability of the various materials used for data recording, by results of these researches it is impossible to make conclusions about time during which, the data can without fears remain on a disk.
The association has tried to answer these questions on technologies of optical carriers OSTA. In its report the information that the written down disks "live" from 50 till 200 years is resulted. This conclusion became result of a considerable quantity of the researches spent by manufacturers of carriers and nearby of others not less of interested persons.
Despite presence of so authoritative researches, some experts declare that rough time of a life of written down carriers no more than two - five years that quite corresponds to opinions of the users who are finding out from time to time that the information on the disks which have been written down more two years ago, is not subject to restoration.
While it is possible to draw only a conclusion that an unambiguous answer on the attention to the question brought by us it is impossible to give. Personally my opinion consists that if the qualitative disk will be written correctly down it can be stored tens years.
It is possible to allocate some the important factors influencing a condition of a disk and the information:
· substrate Type.
· the Physical design of a disk.
· Storage conditions (temperature, humidity, light, mechanical and chemical influences).
· Conditions of production (can differ from party to party even for identical disks of the same mark).
It is necessary to tell and about other, not less important things:
· Quality рекордера. The poor quality drive can "not дожигать" a disk. In this case record can be unstable and be damaged after a while (weeks, months or years).
· Speed of record. Fast record (52х) becomes the reason of instability of the written down information. As a rule, it is less stable, than at lower speeds (from 16х to 32х). But it is not necessary to write down a disk and very slowly. That this process was more clear it is possible to result processing of photos as an example: for a good picture strictly certain endurance is necessary, big or smaller leads to marriage. The written down layer too has an admissible range of "endurances", and the exit for limits of this range leads to bad quality of record.
The arrangement of a written down layer is that that the party of a disk intended for the signature, is directly over it. Even small pressure at disk signing can lead to information loss. It is much worse than scratches on a transparent layer as it is possible to polish it. It is simple plastic scratches on which leave polishing in special devices. On written down DVD-disks the data is on a layer in the carrier. But each disk is a set of the layers which stratifying can damage the information. In such damages can result перегибание a disk, even very small. To secure themselves against loss of the data, fill disks on 80-90 % from their volume, leaving empty external paths where errors and information loss in a case перегибания a disk are most probable.
Glue from labels and chemical substances from the signature made a marker, can get slowly through the surface of a disk intended for the signature, directly on a layer of the data, destroying them. Therefore many experts do not recommend to paste for disks of a label or to sign them. It is better to sign a case with a disk.
At last it is necessary to tell some more words, it is very important to understand that rewritten RW disks are much less stable, than disks for unitary record. Many researches at all do not speak about these disks as here it is not meaningful a question, whether the information on a re-recorded layer will be lost in due course - the answer "will be unequivocal. About it says also that percent of deteriorated CDs-R of disks much more low, than СD-RW. On these carriers the maximum period of storage of the information makes from several months to one - two years.
Guarantee of manufacturers of data carriers
· CD-R – 3. 5 years
· CD-RW – 2. 3 years
· DVD-R – 5. 8 years
· DVD-RW-3. 5 years
· HDD – 5. 8 years
Expected time of a life is a key question in conversation on use DVD-R in such appendices, as video, publishing and various kinds архивирования. In spite of the fact that each manufacturer of disks has an own estimation of prospective time of a life of carriers, safety of disks Pioneer DVD-R is estimated now better, than 100 years. Kodak has declared new service life for CD/DVD in 300 years.
Grooms Dmitry Leonidovich