Genealogy - the Theory

Let's short consider theoretical bases of genealogy.

Genealogy laws:

  • The law of three generations.
  • The law of doubling of number of ancestors.
  • The law of decrease of ancestors.

One of them concerns the table of descending relationship: For hundred years activity of three generations falls. It can mean here that; if the family legend or a list says that the ancestor of a sort participated in revolution which has resulted Catherine II on a throne, and its descendant in the sixth knee, your grandfather, has arrived to Kazakhstan to master a virgin soil it can be checked up. It is necessary to take an interval of time between these events and to divide into number of generations (at us about 190 years, we divide on 6 it turns out approximately 31,5). If figure 30 or very close to it (28-33) as a result turns out, it is possible to consider this text authentic. And here if the difference between generations has turned out 20-21 year or 38-40 years - here something not that, it is necessary to recheck all. As from any law there are exceptions, and from this too. But at the big sizes when before us a list in 6-8 generations or a time interval in 200-250 years, nobody doubts correctness of the law. Now the opinion extends that in modern conditions when the number of the marriages concluded between people at younger age, than earlier, has sharply increased, it is necessary to enter the amendment into this law. But this position demands additional researches.

Working with the table of ascending relationship it is possible to notice that In each following generation the number предклв doubles. It is the second law of genealogy. It to understand easily as each of us has daddy and mum, and their daddies and mum give us four grandmothers and grandfathers etc.

If to connect two rules:" Doubling of number of ancestors ", and" For hundred years activity of three generations "falls it will be possible to present the following. If you were born, for example, in 60th years of our century, yours the grandfather and the grandmother - children of the beginning of the century. Then in the XIX-th century beginning there should be a sixth generation of your ancestors (32 persons), during Ivan Groznogo's epoch - the fourteenth generation, and at each person who has given birth in 60th years of the XX-th century, at this time there should live 8192 real ancestors. Estimate, how many real ancestors of each of us lived in the beginning of a new era, compare that know about population growth on our planet, and you will tell: it is impossible. Really, it is impossible, because actually at each of us of real ancestors much less, than the theory assumes. In genealogy it is called" the Law of decrease of ancestors ". This law speaks that In the real table of ascending relationship on some times прояляется the same person who represents at once several theoretical ancestors. In other words, our parents and more remote ancestors marriages between enough near relations consisted. Most of all the law of decrease of ancestors was shown in notable feudal and royal families where for preservation of privileges and conditions families with relatives were established. The number of ancestors both at peasants is limited, and at small feudal lords who constantly lived in one place and chose wives from the next families. Till now about Russian village say that in it all with each other in relationship. And the greatest number of real ancestors at workers and intelligency, inhabitants of cities where people from different places gathered. Besides these layers of inhabitants are most mobile, not so are connected with the residence. The present and in this law introduces the corrective amendments, измененяя rate of our life, simplifying contacts to the remote territories.

In genealogy it is accepted two directions of research:

  • Ascending,
  • The descending.

In ascending родословии object of research is the person about which ancestors data gather. With it begin, then go on ascending steps or knees, i.e. to the father, the grandfather, to the great-grandfather etc. It is an original form родословия when the researcher still has not enough data when it consistently goes from known to the unknown person.

At drawing up descending родословия begin with most remote of known ancestors and gradually pass to its descendants. Such родословие allows to present visually an overall picture of a life and sort activity, since more remote times and gradually developing up to now.

Both ascending, and descending родословия happen man's and mixed.

Descending родословием the event only from men is called as man's such родословие which specifies all posterity of the given ancestor, but, concerning female representatives of a sort it is limited to instructions of a name of their spouses.

As mixed descending is called such родословие which specifies resolutely in all posterity of the given ancestor, as an event from men, and from women. Similar родословие is not, of course, родословием one surname since covers often a large quantity of sorts, происшедших from one ancestor on female lines. It happens it is necessary for finding-out of related communications between the lateral and rather remote relatives and more often appears in processes about inheritances.

Man's ascending родословие, at its image, will look as a line as in each generation will be on one ancestor of the given person. It родословие is applied to the proof of related communication of the person with any known historical figure kept away on time.

As mixed ascending родословием is called родословие which specifies all ancestors of the given person both on man's, and on a female line. Similar родословие always has the correct form at the image graphically since in the first knee one person is underlined, in the second - two, in the third - four, in the fourth - eight etc. in a geometrical progression, and each of these persons in one knee belongs to other sort so in the fourth knee we have representatives of eight various surnames, and in the fifth already sixteen etc.

Results of research can be issued in a kind:

  • Family tree
  • Genealogical tables
  • Genealogical list

Family tree (family tree).
The family tree can be presented in the form of a tree where the trunk, for example, will designate the person, whose family tree make, a branching - parents of this person, smaller branches - grandfathers and grandmothers etc. Such tree will be ascending. The descending tree will resemble, but in the basis there will be the most distant known ancestor, and in a crone - its descendants.
One of updatings of "a world tree" or "a life tree" it is inherent космологическим in representations of the ancient world and the Middle Ages. Reflects idea and representation about general interrelation of the world. The image of "a tree of a human life" has arisen as a variation of "a world tree".
This image the past, the present and the future embodied in ancestors, recent and the descendants united by idea of continuation of a life has incorporated. This symbolical sense was given also to a family tree of family, a sort.
On the custom accepted in the Western Europe, all men having posterity, are written on the yellow background, not having children - on red. Names of women married - on lilac, girls - on dark blue. All persons who are in live - on a green background, men - more dark, women - more light. Man's names were written in rectangles or rhombuses, female - on mugs or ovals. But this form of the image has not got accustomed in Russia and was малоупотребима. Difficult system of the coding colour of names of women - married and unmarried, live and lifeless, men having posterity and not having.
The genealogical tree looks beautifully and visually, but it cannot give the detailed information on persons mentioned in it.

Genealogical tables.
In 15-16 centuries the form of generalisation of data on genealogy of a steel of the table. Tables were ascending and descending, reflected relationship of man's and female lines, traced relationship of the mixed lines.
In scientific works it is most often used tables of descending relationship on the man's line, containing the posterity of both sexes, occurred from men, addressing of women was limited to names of spouses. These conventions are connected with the legislation on the law of succession on a man's line (the social status and a title). The mixed tables of ascending relationship with instructions of immediate ancestors of man's and female lines without the lateral branches, convenient and evident in definition of blanks родословия were used.
In practice tables of ascending and descending relationship on direct female lines are seldom used. But these workings out are of interest and are used in modern works. In the historical past such tables were used to England (Wales).
By the form tables are various. Can be horizontal, vertical, circular. They are evident, compact and laconic.
Modern conditions dictate the features. Родословия are sated with the information: photos, various certificates, data from biographies, track records, labour activity, etc. the record form Varies also. The form is convenient for such cases named a genealogical list or поколенной a list.
If the genealogical table can be added with a genealogical list, in cases of great volume of the information then it is possible to combine presentation with the text information, with photos and images of ancient volumes and reading and writing. In development of modern computer technologies, use of results of processing of the information for family trees, gets an actual meaning.
The information on representatives of a sort should be short, laconic and contains a necessary minimum: a name, a patronymic, a surname, year of a life, a rank, a title, a trade, the birthplace, some historical details, awards and further at the discretion of the composer.

Genealogical lists.
The most common kind родословия, allowing to inform the user in almost any volume of the information. The list is conducted построчно. A list knee are designated by the Roman figures. The Arabian figures designate all persons present at a list. Numbering of the Arabian figures - through.
Numbering in descending родословии becomes complicated non-uniform quantity of children in each generation, mathematical laws in comparison with ascending родословием are not observed. To the general ancestor number 1 is assigned. During many genealogical former times of the woman not номеровались. Following it there is no possibility to count all quantity of persons in родословии. It is logical to follow a rule - there is a person, there should be number.
To children numbers 2/1,3/1,4/1 are appropriated. To grandsons: 5/1,6/1,7/2,8/3. The fraction denominator designates fatherly number. Mothers, grandmothers are numbered by the Arabian figures without fractions, at observance of through numbering of numerators.
For allocation of sorts of wives, after the description of the concrete person (the great-grandmother, the grandmother), it is possible to place the information on a sort. Variants of descriptions are diverse. To the left of a name the Arabian figures are put. The Roman figures separate representatives of one knee from another. They are put down since a new line.
The following knee begins with the paragraph, since a new line. Fatherly number can be designated not only a denominator in fractional number. Before a name of the representative of a sort the serial number, and in the end of the information on any representative of a sort, last line on the right is put, fatherly (parent) number is put down. In such record serial numbers it is read out at the left, fatherly on the right.
There are many systems of numbering: Соса - Stradonitsa, Abovillja and others. Frequently it is difficult to beginning composers to master the elementary numbering, the most simple variant therefore is offered. The information on representatives of a sort should be short, laconic and contains a necessary minimum: a name, a patronymic, a surname, year of a life, a rank, a title, a trade, the birthplace, some historical details, awards. Further at the discretion of the composer.

Family tree - a work result. It is preceded by gathering, ordering of data and unification, however, in any case it should be authentic. As criteria of reliability sources from which data are obtained serve. Reliability defines scientific character of a family tree. At enough free form of giving of data, there are scientific criteria to which it should correspond.


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