Genealogy, греч., regular meeting of data on an origin, преемстве and relationship of old families of the titled and untitled nobility.
Genealogy. A science a family tree, родословие: поколенная a list only one sort, a family tree. Генеалог m. родослов, engaged родословием. Genealogical, genealogical.
Genealogy (греч. genealog an a family tree), auxiliary historical discipline (has arisen in XVII XVIII centuries), studying an origin, history and related communications of sorts and families; practical branch of knowledge, drawing up родословий.
Known to already many people of the ancient world, the genealogy only from the end of the Middle Ages accepts exact forms. The strong push in this direction was given to it by knightly awards. At ancient генеалогов consisted ordinary only in transfer of fathers, from the ancestor to that person for whom it was deduced родословие; extremely seldom to names of fathers attached names of their wives and still some short data. When knightly awards were formed, and from arriving in them proofs of an origin of noble family, генеал were required. Data have started to accept the conditional form which has received the name of a family tree (tree). The Family tree was made thus: drew a tree on which trunk by a root placed the arms of the person entering an award; the trunk shared on two main branches on which placed: on right the arms of the father, and on left the arms of mother. Each of the main branches again shared on two smaller branches on which the arms of the grandfather and the grandma with fatherly and a mother's side etc. were located. Ordinary for the introduction into an award it was required eight arms (8 quartiers) from each party (considering and the arms entering), are more rare - 16. Similar proofs of nobility were required subsequently for acceptance of young girls on education in monasteries, etc. In XVII century were required, as the documents confirming a family tree, the marriage contract and the will of ancestors of each knee. Little by little to images of the arms began to add data on a birth, death, marriage, etc., and then have started to reduce the arms image. And even not to place at all it, replacing with different data. Thus the family tree has addressed abreast names and has received the name of the genealogical table. Soon the order of drawing up of the table has changed: instead of beginning it from below, i.e. With the person for whom it was made, began to write at the top of the table of the ancestor or the senior ancestor from which conducted a list. As it was extremely difficult to track a female line, at drawing up of tables began to place only persons belonging to the given sort or a surname. Children in the table incorporate to parents прямою чертою, and between themselves - скобкою. On the right all man's names the circle, and female - a square (in West European генеалогиях sometimes there are also other conventional signs) is located. The tabular way convenient on the presentation, takes a lot of place, and besides data on each person can be only extreme the short. Therefore now ordinary mean each person number, since the ancestor. Value of genealogy consists in those services which it sometimes renders stories. Many генеалоги, however, have been involved in rough, and is frequent and in deliberate errors, desire of different persons to be considered as descendants of the well-known and nice ancestors. Родословия, especially in the end of XVII th, XVIII th and in beginning ХIХ-го items, were often made without any documentary data, on the bases of disputable or false legends. Only recently the genealogy starts малопомалу to reject all doubtful, at least and plausible. In France where the genealogy has appeared for the first time in the Middle Ages, it has given variety of figures: Гозье, SenMart, Dju-Shene, Shiffle, Laburer. Мальи, Zhenuljak; recently the genealogy has had the big development and in Germany (Ertel, Gopfel, Fojgtel, Gebgard, etc.). At us only lately the genealogy has had some development, and now there is variety of works of Russian генеалогов: Барсукова, Brandenburg, Rummelja, Selifontova, Petrov, Miloradovicha, etc. П f.-Vinkler."
The genealogy as knowledge of relationship, has appeared together with a human society and lives at all stages of its development. In modern foreign encyclopaedic dictionaries article "Genealogy" begins with bible antiquated section. The bible tells about an origin and relationship of all numerous people. Genealogy blossoming in many countries of Europe coincides with feudalism development. When in a society there is a property and the rights of its inheritance are discussed, the knowledge of degree of relationship is especially important. It was long since moved: to increase greatly possession, it is better to become related with a prosperous family. Society stratification leads to occurrence of the closed groups (estates), each of which has the special rights, duties, privileges. Such isolation forces to fix degree of relationship in each family, that not затесался a stranger, and between various families. In England and France in XVI century the state posts which were responsible for correctness of drawing up родословий are created.
In Russia genealogical lists appear in the end of XV century. In 16 century there are the first private родословцы or the genealogical lists concluding lists of members of one sort or several close sorts. The most ancient - "Gosudarev родословец", concerns 1555 Subsequently it is supplemented with new materials. With destruction in 1682 regionalisms the Chamber of genealogical affairs (existed to 1700) has been founded. In Chamber in the end 17 century "the Velvet book" - a list most noble families of Russia has been made. In 1787 left "the Genealogical book of princes and noblemen Russian and выезжих" (ч. 1-2). In its basis there was "Gosudarev родословец", but lists of surnames of noble family reached the end 16 century the First genealogical tables M.M.ShCherbatov has made. Generalising genealogical work was "the Russian genealogical book" (ч. 1-4, 1854-57), written by P.V.Dolgorukov. In the end of 19 - the beginning 20 centuries interest of nobility to genealogy has not decreased. The Arheografichesky commission has published indexes to the Annalistic arches that was known achievement in the field of studying of ancient genealogy. And. V.Ekzempljarsky, R.V.Zotov and G.A.Vlasev have published the monographic researches devoted princely родословию to Northern Russia, Chernigovshchiny and houses of Rjurikovichej. V.V. work had Great value. Руммеля and V.V. Голубцова "the Genealogical collection of Russian surnames of noble family" (т. 1-2, 1886-87). Extensive researches have been devoted history of sorts of Jusupovyh, Golitsynyh, Sheremetevyh, Barjatinsky, etc. numismatics Development has allowed to solve a number of problems of east genealogy. N.Bartold has translated and Lane-pool "Muslim dynasties" has supplied with comments the book, having used for this Russian meeting of coins. N.Velyaminov-Zernov has done the big work on genealogy studying касимовских tsarevitches. The important place was occupied with L works. M. Савёлова, the devoted bibliographies of genealogy, and also lecture on the Russian genealogy, read by it for listeners of the Moscow archaeological institute in 1907-12.
Formation of the uniform Russian state demands legal fastening of relations between ruling class childbirth. In the forties XVI centuries appear the first genealogical books made in the Digit order, knowing appointments to military service. At Peter I the Geroldmejstersky office has been created. Changing names, it has existed at the Senate till 1917. Here the origin of families officially affirmed, genealogical documents which started to be appreciated highly in a society were conducted.
Begun was to develop researches on genealogy, have been stopped in Russia by 1917. Bolshevist revolution has begun mass destruction of classes of merchants and peasants, noblemen and clergy, scientific and working intelligency. "As harmful", the Evgenichesky society has been in the thirties dismissed and actually in genealogy historians from People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs "began to be engaged".
In the conditions of development of system of liquidation of the general illiteracy, a class of noblemen as the carrier of genealogical knowledge has been destroyed completely. In territory of the former Russia it became dangerous to be engaged in genealogy. Memory of ancestors was exterminated, documents, family archives were destroyed.
Therefore essentially other direction was got by genealogy after 1917. The attention of researchers is turned on source study and археографические problems of genealogical books (M.E.Bychkova), on genealogy and history of country commercial and industrial capitals (N.E.Nosov). On genealogy of Russian feudal sorts S.B.Veselovskogo's works (both published, and neopublished) have Great value. In a Soviet period there were researches on genealogy of outstanding figures of Russian science, culture, the public thought, devoted genealogical A.S.Pushkin, A.N.Radishcheva, Aksakovyh, M.V.Lomonosova, etc. the Special place is occupied with researches on V.I.Lenin's genealogy and Ulyanov's families.
The genealogy developed centuries norms of registration of data on relationship in the form of various tables, lists, the file, cards. Accurate rules of filling of these documents were established: a drawing, symbolics, numbering and so on. Thanks to the unified system of signs, original language of genealogy irrespective of where the genealogical directory is made, read it can practically everywhere.
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