The All-Russia population census of 1897
(Edition "Letter of Ru")

The full and a trustworthy information about the population of Russia of the end of XIX century is given by materials of the First All-Russia population census spent on January, 28th, 1897 (on old style). Population census as process is the direct mass statistical account of the population spent for the purpose of definition of its number, structure and placing for the certain moment. Except the important information on demographic and social processes nationally censuses bear also the valuable information on each person - its participant, his family and related communications and in this plan are an invaluable source for genealogical research. Adequately to imagine information potential of use of materials of census of 1897 in геналогическом research it is necessary to stop in more details on its history, circumstances of carrying out and to characterise procedure of processing of results.

The idea about necessity of urgent replacement existing flowing ревизского the account of the population constant statistics has arisen in 50th of XIX century In the majority of the European countries by then the basic data on the population gathered by means of the single general censuses which were last word of a statistical science. During long discussions single general census has been recognised is the most adequate answering to problems of the statistical account насления to Russia, however is direct to working out of the detailed project of the All-Russia population census have started only in 70th after introduction of a general compulsory military service and statement on the agenda of a question on cancellation подушной taxes. The first detailed project of census has been presented by the chairman of the Central statistical committee P.P.Semenovym-Tjanshanskim in 1877 That "to get acquainted with the population and to study it", and also "to make exact concepts about the most various conditions of a national life" it was supposed to spend simultaneous (one-day) census of all (irrespective of a sex, age, a condition, a nationality and citizenship) the empire population (except Finland). Thus (unlike audits chronologically previous census) census did not bear any fiscal loading, its carrying out has not been connected with introduction new or revision of old taxes, no less than its results it was not supposed were used in the fiscal purposes. Only almost in 20 years this project with minor alterations has been confirmed by emperor Nikolay II, according to "to Position about the First general population census of the Russian empire", published in 1895, census has been appointed to January, 28th, 1897

For census have been prepared переписные sheets of three kinds: the form "And" - for the country court yard which were a part of a community; the form - for owners of manors and farms, and also private houses in settlements; the form "In" - for townspeople. The economy was an observation unit, in a city the apartment was considered as an economy, on each economy was got separate переписной sheet. Census set as the purpose to consider three categories of the population: cash, settled (constant) and приписное, for this purpose in приписном sheet were marked: 1) being it is available in day of census; 2) registered in the given economy and being in time absence; 3) persons who have been attributed to the given place. Everyone interrogated was offered to answer some question, taking places on the back sheet. The list of the questions containing in переписном sheet, was extensive enough and consisted of 14 points: 1) a surname, a name, a patronymic or a nickname; 2) a floor; 3) the relation to the head of the family and the head of an economy; 4) age; 5) the marital status; 6) estate, a condition or a rank; 7) the birthplace; 8) an addition place; 9) an ordinary residence; 10) a mark about absence; 11) creed; 12) a native language; 13) ability to read; 14) employment - craft, a craft, a post or service, separately - main and auxiliary. Marks about a compulsory military service and about physical defects besides became. At filling переписного sheet to the first always specified the owner, then all other members of a family in relation to it: the wife, sons, daughters (or children on a seniority), husbands and wives of children, grandsons, the aged father and mother, brothers, sisters, nephews, дядья, aunts etc. For снох, grandsons and nephews were available additional отсылочные instructions on intrafamily relationship.

Census was spent to two stages: on the first (preparatory, December 1896 - January, 1897) counters (for census carrying out on all country it has been involved more than 135 thousand counters, basically competent spare soldiers, teachers and priests) bypassed economy and filled переписные sheets which then were looked through managing переписными by sites; at the second stage (the core, "critical date" - on January, 28th, 1897) Counters at a time visited again economy, checked and if necessary corrected the data of the first interrogation. In cities the self-calculation method (in manors and city home ownerships, and also at factories the counter only brought, took away and checked переписные sheets, and their filling was spent accordingly by owners, tenants, owners), and in a countryside - an interrogation method (переписные sheets were filled with the counter at interrogation of each economy) was applied. Filled and checked up primary переписные sheets arrived on переписные sites and after specification committees went in provincial and central statistical. The data processing of census spent including with use so-called" Cars Hollerita ", has in total occupied more than 8 years. The publication of results of census has begun in 1898 of All for 1898 - 1905 117 volumes погубернских results (on 89 provinces) and two-volume" the General arch on empire of results of working out of general population census have been let out... ". Degree of reliability of the received data in a domestic historiography is traditionally estimated as rather high, census materials are actively used in concrete historical and other adjacent researches. However, and materials of census of 1897, certainly are not deprived errors and discrepancies. So, for example, the participant and one of the sharpest critics of census A.Kotelnikov in results of census has found out wandering Kalmyks in the Moscow province, married among juvenile and Kirghiz of Catholic creed.

Certainly, paramount value for genealogical research not published summary results of census representing the general quantitative and qualitative characteristic of the population of empire as a whole, and primary переписные have the sheets containing the valuable information on each separate person, living in empire territory in 1897 In переписных sheets unique data on the biography of the person (a birth date and birth place, the marital status, language and creed), its social status (formation, employment) and family structure are fixed by time. However primary переписные sheets of census of 1897 have remained badly that does not promote activization of their use in genealogical researches. As a rule, the first copies переписных sheets went in Main переписную the commission (the commission fund is stored in РГИА), second copies remained in provincial земских justices, and the third - in volost boards. Census of 1897 Has wholly justified expectations of its organizers, nevertheless practically the question on necessity of new general census at once has been brought up. After long discussions the second All-Russia population census has been appointed to 1915, however the begun war has prevented its carrying out.

Rositsa Bakalova

The material is taken with сайтаЛитера Ru

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