Councils beginning генеалогам
The leader of a site "All-Russia family tree"
Lyudmilas Birjukovoj
(On the basis of the literature, dialogue with генеалогами and site experience)
The material is taken from a site
Ideal state of mind of the genealoga-fan which guarantees to it peace of mind - to consider that genealogical researches are in many respects interesting as process which besides can be continued infinitely - it is possible even to try to find the ancestors to Adam or to find out a family tree of all people carrying your surname. If you consider so you will be afflicted not too with that fact that genealogy at the moment - a hobby, from the point of view of many at all more fascinating, than, for example, collecting of marks. All found relatives also cannot become your adherents as is not present on light of any family, which all members помешаны on philately. You can hope that the insignificant part of again found relatives will want to participate in your searches, the part hardly will listen to more your stories with interest, and the great bulk will consider that you fool about. Here, as well as everywhere, the general statistical regularity 80 on 20 operates - 20 percent of people show 80 percent of interest to genealogy.
To begin genealogical researches of own sort is better with... For what will not guess from what.
From purchase канцтоваров and audits.
To remember all it is impossible, all facts are necessary for writing down with instructions of a source and to put in envelopes and folders. There copies of documents, photos and archival inquiries, but it then later will go. Even if you the abrupt computer person also are going to scan and store all in the computer, the paper archive is necessary to you also. Do not give Б, of course, but suddenly the electricity will be gone in Russia...

Spend houses audit of ancient documents and photos. Documents which contain the genealogical information - Birth certificates, Marriage certficates, Certificates on divorce, Certificates on death, Passports, Work record cards, certificates, certificates, certificates, reading and writing, diplomas, medal books, identity cards. Pay attention to names, dates, a residence, related communications. From all documents remove x-copies. In one folder put all concerning a fatherly line, in another - parent. For each person - a separate envelope. Receiving new data, do not forget them to display. Subsequently you should set for yourselves a problem to reach family archives of relatives and to copy everything, relevant.
As at the Soviet power the population was, as they say, is passported, passport data too can be a source of the genealogical information. Hardly you houses will find someone's old passport, but passport number can be written down, for example, in old note нкижке, and it already speaks about possibility to search for data in archives.
Make the inventory of all collected papers, that is the list and their short maintenance. Envelopes in which there are papers, number.
It is not necessary to restore shabby documents and pictures if it is necessary, give to their experts. Do not paste documents in albums - only put them in in advance prepared envelopes, copy and scan. As a maximum, can write on the back of photos a pencil: who is represented, when and where the picture is made. Copies of documents and documents store in the developed kind (that bends), big did not rub both important documents and rare photos place in separate envelopes.
And here already there is a possibility to prepare for dialogue with relatives.
Now the turn of conversations comes.
At the majority of people relatives are not interested in genealogy and related communications, do not wish to co-operate, any documents do not give... Many genealogical researches have ended at this stage. Well, to begin with, think, - for what reason by it for you something to do? One business when there is something serious then relatives, as a rule, come to the rescue and so, for the sake of imaginations... The Genealogy is for you seriously. And for them, quite probably, something another. At them the problems, efforts above a head, therefore they cannot precisely consider themselves obliged, for example, at first to search for documents, then to go them to x-copy and scan, and then still to spend evening, and even not one, for that with you to communicate. Therefore, it is necessary to think over all properly.
Go with a notebook or with cards and stick to all relatives with questions. Ask parents, grandmothers and grandfathers, aunts and дядь about everything that they remember. Living in other cities ask letters, and it is better by phone and e-mail. Phones can be learnt in telephone databases in a network, electronic addresses more and more every day on our site. However, should notice that if in open access there is no electronic address, most likely it and at us is not present or the person asked this address to give to nobody. You can try to find its phone on telephone base or in a work place, has put this not too difficult. And can ask us, we will find.
One of regular customers of a site of Ilona has thought up the ideal letter which all namesakes answer almost, can esteem. And other visitor - Larissa, has thought up a genealogical congratulatory card, can look.

Quite often people hesitate to ask the relatives (or namesakes) about their related communications then business is entered by us are a first component of experience of a site. We do not hesitate, we call, we are represented, it is possible to come on a site and to look, who we such to call by phone. But the person not constraining and not limited in time can do all it is.

One of ways of search of the relatives, tested and sent more recently:
"If you search for the person consisting on the military account it makes sense to address in a military registration and enlistment office of that city where it though once stood on the account. If it was struck off the register to you will inform, in what military registration and enlistment office it was translated (me even the address of a new military registration and enlistment office kindly informed.) and on a chain will reach last, present. From last military registration and enlistment office to me have sent a home address. I have found" потеряшку "so. If I did not know the exact address, I simply wrote the CITY, a city military commissariat on an envelope . And the letter reached. I understand, what not in all cases it is realised, but can, though to someone will carry, as well as me".

It is not necessary to take offence, if again found relatives do not invite you, whether poorly what conditions at them and circumstances. Nevertheless, if relatives live with you in one city, it is desirable not to write them the letter, and to communicate personally. It is necessary to talk in pleasant, weakening conditions, is better at home at the one whom you have decided to ask, but can approach and something another. The main thing that the interrogated did not hasten anywhere - двадцатиминутный for serious interrogation is not necessary, is better to use a lunch break it to make the present an appointment. If your relatives sometimes gather - for holidays, weddings, birthdays - this case can be used on a maximum.
It would be most convenient to write down, of course, all on the tape recorder, it is difficult enough to remember all. Thus, take cartridges twice more than your way it is necessary - constant inclusion and deenergizing very much irritates, write down also pauses. At least, write down the key moments in a notebook, simultaneously write down questions which have climbed up to you in a head in the course of the story, do not interrupt. It is clear that the majority of people is confused, when someone writes down their words, therefore conversation should be conducted so that the person has taken a great interest in the story. If you have a camera, take it with itself - probably you will manage to photograph any family relics, documents, and the story-teller. The tape recorder needs to be checked up, at the same time accustoming the interlocutor to record - include it, tell, who you, what number with whom and about what you talk, and then reproduce this record.
Making to an an appointment, warn that you will write down all and will come with the camera, let the person will in advance psychologically be prepared. Well also do not forget to explain, what for all of you it do, what will be an end result and whether it will be possible to look it. Do not give promises which be not going to carry out, if, for example, you are going to lay out result on the Internet, warn about it then, probably, to you something will inform<не для печати>.
Beginning conversation, talk about itself. You need to come into contact, to create sensation of comfort and communication between you and the person to whom you talk. At this time prepare a notebook or the tape recorder with the camera if be going to use them.
Prepare the list of questions, and invent such that it was impossible to answer them tersely. A question: <А вы помните как звали родителей дедушки?>- it is not necessary, very easily to receive the answer<Нет>. Even a question: <А что вы помните о родителях вашего дедушки?>- it is not too good, it is possible to receive the answer:<Ничего!>. The question should sound so that it answered as it is possible longer, therefore it is necessary to ask at first about the grandfather, about its character, that he told about the childhood and if did not tell why, and then already gradually to pass to his parents. If you all the same have received the terse answer, try to specify: <А почему?>
As each family is unique, it is impossible to make the list of questions approaching for all. But here some themes which can be discussed.
When in a family there was a surname, whether there are any stories about its origin, whether it varied sometime? By the way, that квалифицированно to discuss this theme, it is necessary to read the historical inquiry in the third part, the head is called<Можно ли узнать родословную по фамилии>.
Whether there are names traditional for a family? What diminutives called ancestors and relatives and whence they undertook?
Whether the family about a place into place moved, how many years already the family lives on this place, whether there are any family legends connected with a residence, the subjects brought from an old place? What oldest things were in the house when your interlocutor was small? Whether there are any family relics? Whether there is any history connected with them? Who is represented in old photos? Who when and in what occasion did these photos? Whether there are any ancient documents?
Whether there were in a family any traditions which were gone in due course or have changed? In what they consisted and whence undertook? How in a family celebrated holidays? In what cases all family gathered? What thus did, about what spoke? If it has stopped, why? Whom in a family respected and expressed it special respect? Whether there were in a family infringers of traditions, people who did not love, were rather afraid or such, communication with which has been lost?
Whether there are any family features of informal conversation, family jokes and not clear another of a word?
Whether any bright cases from a life of parents, grandfathers and grandmothers, earlier ancestors, any relatives are known. Whether there are legends about related communications with any picturesque persons and celebrities? Whether there are stories about neighbours and acquaintances? How your ancestors have met and have got married?
Whether there are any special family dishes? Whether any recipes from generation to generation were transferred? Whence they undertook, as well as why varied in due course? Whether there was any traditional celebratory food? Whether there are in a family any stories connected with meal?
How the family was affected by different historical events who in a family has suffered or has made a heroic act? Whether any awards are stored in a family? What marriages could not take place if not any historical event?
Is better to begin with any simple question which it is possible to answer not задумывась - about time and the birthplace, or about any before told to your this interlocutor stories.
Inventing a question, try to present reaction of the interlocutor. Is better to begin conversations with those who is obviously good to you concerns, with whom you feel well. In the course of conversation you can learn something and about other sources, something like:<Тетя Марина может про него много рассказать, ей всегда нравилась эта история>. And in general, the best way to find new sources of the information - to ask those who to the first comes to to you mind.
Thus it is not necessary<зацикливаться> on the list of questions and to aspire to set all of them, задававайте what approach to conversation. Listen attentively and show interest, nod and smile. If the person has reflected, do not hurry, be not afraid of silence. If there was a theme not provided by you, do not stop conversation, all is useful. Do not try to speak only about the past, and listen to everything that to you want and can tell. Stimulate to tell to your stories and jokes. They are interesting even in the event that do not correspond to historic facts, they allow to understand history of your family in all completeness, with all dreams and prejudices of your ancestors, with sense of their life and with sense of existence of your family.
But, of course, it is not necessary to forget about the purpose. In what the purpose of your inquiries? But even if your purpose - only to learn historic facts, do not shut companies to the interlocutor, let conversation flows freely. The purpose defines, what it is necessary to ask questions.
Stimulate the interlocutor to use in conversation ancient documents, the family photos, even any household subjects if they have remained - all it helps to recollect.
When conversation will come to an end, see the list of questions, maybe, during conversation you any theme have not mentioned. If the interlocutor has got tired, do not insist on continuation, agree about the following meeting. Experience shows that normal duration of conversation - one-two hour.
Having come back home, put in order records, systematise everything that have learnt, especially notice that will help you with the further search, but is not subject to disclosure. Necessarily write down from whose story you подчерпнули the information, when and under what circumstances. Do not postpone it, later you necessarily will forget any important details. If you wrote down conversation on the tape recorder, mark films.

In article of Mozharova Н "genealogy Lessons" ("the Red star" from 11, 13, 19, on August, 24th, 1993) is offered to prepare the questionnaire for conversations with relatives and to write in cards here that:
"In the top part of sheet we write a surname, a name, a patronymic. To women it is specified also a maiden name (nee such). The data Further follows:
  • 1. Number, month, year and the birthplace, and for deceased also number, month, year of death, a burial place.
  • 2. Surnames, names, patronymics of the father and mother.
  • 3. Surnames, names, patronymics восприемников (the godmother and the father).
  • 4. For born till 1917 - estate (peasants, petty bourgeoises, merchant class, noblemen).
  • 5. A residence, in what years.
  • 6. Creed (orthodox, Catholic, Muslim, Judaic).
  • 7. Where it was brought up, what formation has received.
  • 8. Places of work or service, a rank, a post.
  • 9. Whether participated in wars, battles, when, where.
  • 10. What has awards (distinctions, medals, awards).
  • 11. A surname, a name, a patronymic of the wife (husband).
  • 12. Names, birth dates and birth places of children, whenever possible with instructions of surnames, names and patronymics of the godfather and mother ".
    But generally it is necessary to write down everything, even descriptions of appearance, habits and ridiculous stories, and it is obligatory to write down, who and when to you it has told.

    Relationship terminology is necessary to understand old records and explanations of elderly relatives - the majority of terms now is not used (and even it is difficult to believe that were once used, so they are not clear, but suddenly you have so old relatives...)
  • The grandma, the grandmother - mother of the father or mother, the wife of the grandfather.
  • The brother - each of sons of one parents.
  • The brother the Godfather - the son of the godfather.
  • The brother крестовый, the brother on a cross, the brother named - the persons who have exchanged нательными crosses.
  • Братан, братаник, братеня, братеник, брательник - the cousin.
  • Братаниха - the wife of the cousin.
  • Братанна - the daughter of the brother, the niece on the brother.
  • Братова - the wife of the brother.
  • Брательница - the relative in general, cousin or distant.
  • Братыч - the son of the brother, the nephew on the brother.
  • The widow - the woman who has not entered other marriage after death of the husband.
  • The widower - the man who has not married after death of the wife.
  • The grandson - the son of the daughter, the son; and also sons of the nephew or the niece.
  • The grand daughter, the grandson - the daughter of the son, the daughter; and also daughters of the nephew or the niece.
  • The brother-in-law - the brother of the husband.
  • The grandfather - the father of mother or the father.
  • The grandfather the Godfather - the father of the godfather.
  • Дедина, дедка - the aunt on the uncle.
  • Дедич - the lineal heir on the grandfather.
  • The daughter - the person of a female in relation to the parents.
  • The daughter named - the adopted child, the pupil.
  • Дщерич - the nephew on the aunt.
  • Дщерша - the niece on the aunt.
  • Дядька - put for leaving and supervision of the child.
  • The uncle - the brother of the father or mother.
  • The wife - the married woman in relation to the husband.
  • The groom - сговоривший to itself the bride.
  • Золовица, the sister-in-law, золова - sister of the husband, sometimes the wife of the brother, the daughter-in-law.
  • The son-in-law - the husband of the daughter, sister, the sister-in-law.
  • The godfather, the godmother - sm: the Father the Godfather, mother God.
  • Mother - the person of a female in relation to the children.
  • Mother God, mother крестовая - восприемница at a christening ceremony.
  • Mother named - mother to the adopted child, the pupil.
  • Mother dairy - мамка, the wet nurse.
  • Mother planted - the woman replacing on wedding native mother of the groom.
  • The stepmother - other wife of the father, nonnative mother.
  • The husband - the married man in relation to the wife.
  • The daughter-in-law - the wife of the son.
  • The father - the male in relation to the children.
  • The father the Godfather - восприемник at a font.
  • The father названый - the father to the adopted child, the pupil.
  • The father прибеседный, the father посаженый, the father ряженый - the person, acting instead of the native father on wedding.
  • Отценачальник - the senior in generation.
  • The stepfather - other husband of mother, the nonnative father.
  • Отчинник, отчич - the son, the successor.
  • The stepdaughter - the daughter from other marriage in relation to the nonnative parent.
  • The stepson - the son nonnative to one of spouses.
  • The nephew - the son of the brother or sister.
  • The niece - the daughter of the brother or sister.
  • Племяш - the relative, the relative.
  • Primogenitors - the known couple first on a family tree from which the sort originates.
  • The ancestor - the parent of the great-great-grandfather, прапрабабки.
  • The ancestor - the first known representative of a sort from whom it is conducted родословие.
  • The matchmaker, сватья - parents young and their relatives under the relation to each other.
  • The father-in-law - the father of the husband.
  • The mother-in-law - mother of the husband.
  • Свойственник - the person consisting in related relations on the husband, the wife.
  • Brothers-in-law - the persons married to two sisters.
  • Brothers-in-law cousin - the persons married to cousins.
  • Sister - the daughter of one parents.
  • Сестренница - the cousin, the daughter of sister of mother or the father.
  • The little sister, сестрина, the sister - the cousin.
  • Сестренич, сестрич - the son of sister of mother or the father, the nephew on sister.
  • The daughter - in-law, сыноха - the wife of the son, the daughter-in-law.
  • Сношенница - the wife of the brother-in-law, the wife of two brothers under the relation to each other, daughters-in-law.
  • The spouse - the husband.
  • The spouse - the wife.
  • The son - the male in relation to the parents.
  • The son God (godson) - the male in relation to восприемнику.
  • The son названый - the adopted child, the pupil.
  • The father-in-law - the father of the wife.
  • The aunt, the aunt - sister of the father or mother.
  • The mother-in-law - mother of the wife.
  • The brother-in-law - the brother of the wife.
    Adjectives can be applied on many of these terms:
  • Внучатный, grand - about the relationship occurring from the third knee (also three times removed) or still further.
  • Cousin - about the relationship occurring from the second knee.
  • Blood - about relationship within one family.
  • Homogeneous - about an origin from one father.
  • One-uterine - about an origin from one mother.
  • Full - about an origin from one parents.
  • Пра - a prefix meaning relationship in a distant ascending or descending order.
  • Привенчанный - about an origin from one parents, but before marriage born, and then recognised.
  • Native - about an origin from one parents.
  • Summary - about an origin from different parents.
  • Adopted - the male in relation to adoptive fathers.
  • Adopted - the person of a female in relation to reception parents.

    Consider that all people recollect same differently, they name different years of a birth and names of the same relatives and ancestors, confuse estates and settlements, as a rule do not remember names and events of a life of another's children, but the approximate picture ready for the further research gradually appears. To send inquiry to archive, it is necessary to know at least about one person the following: ФИО, year and the birthplace (till 1917) and death where veins (for definition of church arrival - christening places), than was engaged (estate). As a last resort, it is possible to specify approximate year of a birth then in archive will see documents for some years, but also to cost it, will be accordingly more expensive (genealogical search in the majority of archives - paid service).

    The case when the person has unexpectedly assumed that all carriers of its surname - relatives was the most remarkable in this sense our experience. Therefore we found to it namesakes in different cities, both it, and we, communicated with them, and it has appeared that this surname occurs from the local name of a kind of activity, so all its carriers really relatives: though they also do not have general ancestor, all of them lived in one settlement, same were engaged and have become related. Then it was proved by archival search.

    The case when for one person who had about parents of the father only rather foggy data, and very much wished to learn something about the ancestors in summary it was found out was the most distressing for the customer our search in phone that his father was illegitimate, and the nationality of its grandfather categorically did not arrange. So if be afraid to find out among the ancestors of any strange people, at first be adjusted positively - knowledge in any case better ignorance.

    Well and one more case, the most romantic. Though we searched and not for the relative, it makes sense to result it - it proves that impossible anything is not present. Communicating only by phone and e-mail we have found to the girl from New Zealand the Russian seaman whom she has met twenty years ago in the homeland (it served by Russian ship), has fallen in love, could not forget in any way, but knew only his name, a surname and the ship name.
    Now it is necessary to learn words.
    The genealogy developed centuries norms of registration of data on relationship in the form of various tables, lists, the file, cards, established accurate rules of filling of these documents: a drawing, symbolics, numbering and so on. Now, of course, there are genealogical programs in which majority format GEDCOM which does not have the slightest relation to a centuries-old history of genealogy is applied much, convenient is pure from the computer point of view for compatibility of programs (by the way funny, this format one sect has invented, speak totalitarian though, can, and is not present, but in any case their invention has won the world, and the sect is extended not so strongly). In programs it is completely not obligatory to understand something in genealogical terms, the tree will be drawn itself, there all is very simple. But really you would not like, that the presents генеалоги respected you?
    If it would be desirable, their some wise words nevertheless should be learnt.

    In ascending родословии begin with the certain person, then go on ascending steps or knees to the father, the grandfather, the great-grandfather etc., from known to the unknown person.

    In descending родословии begin with most remote of known ancestors and gradually pass to descendants.

    Man's descending родословие specifies all posterity of the ancestor, an event only from men, with instructions of a name of their spouses.

    Man's ascending родословие looks as a line as in each generation one ancestor of a male is shown only. A surname in man's родословиях only one. 
    Mixed descending родословие shows all posterity of the given ancestor, irrespective of a floor.

    Mixed ascending родословие shows all ancestors on a man's and female line. In the first knee one person, in second two, in the third - four, in the fourth - eight etc. in a geometrical progression, and each person belongs to other sort so at the fourth, for example, a knee there are representatives of eight various surnames.

    Родословие it is possible to issue in the form of a tree. In ascending the trunk designates the person from whom it is under construction, a branching - his parents, branches more small - the grandfather and the grandmother etc. From apart them will be not not distinguished, but in the basis descending the ancestor, and in a crone - descendants.
    In the Western Europe were in the habit to paint the family trees of a tree: the men having posterity, wrote on the yellow background, not having children - on red, married women - on lilac, girls - on dark blue. All live drew on a green background, men - on more dark, women - on more light. Man's names wrote in rectangles or rhombuses, female - on mugs or ovals. But it did not correct, in Russia so did seldom.

    The genealogical table is the same, but without any liberties and украшательства. Each generation is located strictly on one horizontal. The seniority of persons in each generation goes from left to right. The ascending table to draw more or less easily, descending difficultly, stirs different number of names in each generation and descendants at each person. In a XVII century in genealogical tables in Russian genealogical books of a XVII-th century and the Russian pre-revolutionary historical literature the ancestor was located in the top line, and further there were downwards generations of its descendants.
    The horizontal table goes from left to right: at the left the ancestor or the person whose родословие is made, and further - columns, on the generations, all its ancestors or descendants. The senior descendants always settle down from above, and the seniority is read from top to down.
    Кругообразные (circular) tables were used in English and French genealogy. In the centre - the person for whom it is made родословие, further a circle halve, in one half ancestors on a fatherly line, in another - on parent. Circular tables happen only ascending.
    In tables use reductions and signs:
    И - a name (the patronymic is excluded, it is restored by name the father)
    f. - A surname
    Т/П - a title, a trade (an occupation, a social status, a speciality, ranks, ranks, ranks, etc.)
    * 1833 - was born in 1833
    + 1891 - has died in 1891
    Х 1890 - married in 1890
    ) (1888 - has divorced in 1888
    (+) 1895 - it is buried in 1895.
    To each name in the table assign the number

    The genealogical list is a verbal retelling of the table where data on each name are added. At each data specify a source from which it is taken. At each name number one after another is on the left side put. In Russia genealogical lists have appeared in the end of XV century. In the forties XVI centuries have appeared the genealogical books made in the Digit order, knowing appointments to military service. At Peter I the Geroldmejstersky office which existed is created, changing names, till 1917.
    Should tell that professional генеалоги very much think much of numbering of genealogical lists, even, speak, one генеалог has fought with another, discussing a slash or a point to put after one of figures. I will inform you two ways of numbering, and you will choose what is pleasant to you more. There are also others but to what to try объять the immense.
    Let's assume, the most distant relative from known to you is your great-grandfather Ivan Petrovich who had brother Stepan Petrovich and sister Marja Petrovna. At Ivan Petrovicha was three children (one of them your grandfather), at Stepan Petrovicha two, and at Mari Petrovny and at all ten. All these children married and too gave birth to children.
    So, we start to write a list. Actually, the most distant ancestor known to you - Peter, Ivan and Stepan Petrovichej's father. We assign it number 1. The beginning at us such:

    I knee
    1. Peter

    At all subsequent knees number will consist or of two figures, or from such quantity of figures which corresponds to knee number. That is, or we at first write figure of the parent, and then a serial number of the child, or all of us number the found relatives one after another, and number of the parent we write the second. (Sometimes this number of the parent write on the right, at the very end of a line). Here is how it looks in practice:

    I I knee. (Containing your great-grandfather)
    1.1. (Or 2.1) Ivan Petrovich
    1.2. (Or 3.1) Stepan Petrovich
    1.3. (Or 4.1) Marja Petrovna

    I I I knee (containing your grandfather)
    1.1.1. (Or 5.2) Ivan Petrovicha's First child
    1.1.2. (Or 6.2) Ivan Petrovicha's Second child
    1.1.3 (or 7.2) Ivan Petrovicha's Third child
    1.2.1 (or 8.3) Stepan Petrovicha's First child
    1.2.2. (Or 9.3) Stepan Petrovicha's Second child
    1.3.1. (Or 10.4) the First child Mari Petrovny
    And so on.

    IV knee (containing your father)
    Children of all representatives of the third knee.

    Let's define number for the first child of first child Ivan Petrovicha. On the first way it is On the second way... So, at Mari Petrovny was ten children - numbers 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20. That is, means, the first child in a following knee will be 21. And number of his parent - the first child Ivan Petrovicha - 5. That is on the second way number of this representative 21.5.
    It seems to me, the second way more confused, but it is more extended, in spite of the fact that if you find the new relative, it is necessary to renumber all who is in knees with number more. And on the first way you under number can understand at once all chain of ancestors and it is possible to add them though in tens.
    I advise to begin with to use the first way, and then if it is pleasant to you to see the general large quantity of relatives numbered one after another, simply renumber everything when all will be already ready.
    At each representative of your genealogical list it is necessary to write everything that you about it know (it), including the spouse (spouse) both (its) its parents and a source of data (if sources different). When will finish all to the logic end, make the general list of sources and refer.
    Construct the first a tree
    Having got tired of studying of terms, you can while to construct the ascending tree, a descending tree, from the most ancient ancestor found you to again found distant relatives, a tree on a parent line (being guided by its maiden name), and as on a surname of grandmothers and grandfathers. All depends that you наузнавали.
    But it is not excluded that it is all a lie.

    I constantly receive the information from people who wish to bring the information on on site ВГД. More often a problem arising thus - from their records almost nothing can be understood. If you come to the relative whom wish to persuade to waste time on search of documents and photos in family archive, with a heap of crushed pieces of paper on which it is written not clearly that, it will not be in earnest about your request. Therefore now, very short, I will tell to you how to represent that you know at the moment, it is clear for associates.
    Necessity to systematise the information and to subject to its computer processing arises quickly enough, especially if to try to collect the information on all carriers of the surname. What to choose, depends on you have got used to what programs.
    For the analysis it is necessary such that was able to sort lines of the information by any column. That is will approach word, Excel or any database. Also any genealogical program is still necessary to bring there the generated branches of a tree.
    Get the table.
    The first column - a surname, 2 - a name, 3 - a patronymic, 4 - year of a birth, 5 - the birthplace, 6 - year of death, 7 - the additional information, 8 - source number.
    The program in which you work, should be able, if it is necessary, to build your information alphabetically on the birthplace, or, let us assume, in the order of increase of years of a birth, or to build people on a patronymic if you search for someone's son or the daughter.
    7 column - the additional information - should not contain all information known to you on the person at all, only the basic which can help with its identification somehow.
    So, you start.
    Let's admit, you investigate a surname of the father.
    Search for this surname at first on all search systems, unpack pages where it comes across, number a source, bring available information in the table, clean a source in an envelope and accurately put on a shelf. To start to think still early. Of an arrangement order too do not think, simply add in the table one line for another. There is no name and a patronymic, there are only initials - write to corresponding sections under one letter. There are no years of a life - do not write them. To 7 column write, for example, the book name if you the author of the book so have found it. Or write, whose friend, and in what city if you have found a mention of this surname, for example, in article about any poet it was. If in one article some persons with one surname are mentioned, on everyone get a separate line, and in the additional information write, how they are connected. If someone's family tree has got to you, bring all its characters and in this table, and in the genealogical program, in a column<дополнительная информация> write the name of a file with a tree.
    Then you search for this surname on all telephone databases, on databases of employees of various establishments, under dictionaries and encyclopaedias, on a database of registration chamber, under lists of searched criminals, that is everywhere. If, let us assume, the person to you has got from a telephone database, write to the additional information phone and the address (a city do not forget).
    Therein everywhere, where it is possible, subscribe for news on this surname. On Yandex, I know, it is possible, but for certain still somewhere. The Information on the Internet is updated less often to comb it, it is better to subscribe for news.
    Now start to manipulate the table and to think.
    Sort by a name - to combine conterminous characters, what for to you the same person two times? By the way, full namesakes exist much so at the slightest doubt it is better not to combine. If from isolated data short chains were generated let, create for them files in the genealogical program. And here you find out that the information has not enough.
    By the way, it is titanic work. You do not forget all files to copy and keep on disks, diskettes or the other carriers convenient to you, such work to do two times any person is not capable.
    Further you will go to libraries. The information saved up on the Internet has not enough to understand with all carriers of the surname.
    You go on mountain Poklonnuju and under all books of memory of all regions write out carriers of the surname. Feel scope? If at you it is a lot of money and not enough time, employ students, pay in it сдельно, but be ready to that they can casually commit an error at copying - from errors nobody is insured. Or it is possible to try to persuade workers of the electronic book of memory to unpack to you of all carriers of a surname, but they on it usually disagree - at them normal orders more than enough, they and them have not time to carry out.
    You go to historical library and write out the namesakes from memorable books of all provinces, from the various books beginning words "the List...", "the Alphabet..." Or "the Alphabetic list...".
    You bring the received information in the table, periodically combine doubles and pull out the formed genealogical chains. Lines of those characters which have already got to any chains, allocate somehow.
    Think, set of family trees from this can turn out? Cannot.
    To make of this stunning heap of a material set of family trees, you should communicate with all carriers of the investigated surname, which address you by this time have found, and to suggest them to join. One person copes with it cannot.
    Having contacted namesakes, you can decipher somehow the information on the twentieth century and take from it genealogical chains, but to find the general ancestors, all the same it is necessary to address in archives - the extremely insignificant part of people living on the earth has got to printing sources and the Internet. It is necessary to hope only that your titanic work will help you to induce namesakes to undertake joint archival search, differently it is all and remains set of the untied information, however, rather impressing.

    There are many programs with which help it is possible to draw family trees. Addresses where it is possible to download, eat them here. It is possible to argue long on their merits and demerits, but I to you will tell about that which most of all is pleasant to me and which can be downloaded on the Internet free of charge - any larceny, it is simply free program GenoPro. Its basic advantages from my point of view - it very simple and with its help it is possible to unpack the tree on a paper to show to relatives. And if you do not have printer, you can simply draw again that has turned out. Having talked to relatives, you can make corrections and additions, and to following relatives to go already with a new variant.
    To start to make a tree it is possible from any place. When you will instal this program, above there will be many various buttons, among them you need to choose the button, at prompting on which come up words Family wizard (the piece of a genealogical tree and a magic wand there is drawn). When you will click by this button, there will be a table. You enter the father in the left part of the table (Father), in left - mother (Mother), pressing button Add in the bottom of the table add children, then press OK from above in the right corner and the beginning is necessary to a tree. On a tip of the mouse at you the scheme from parents and children hangs, you establish it on page, click on any empty place (that it has been allocated nothing) and continue.
    If to click the right button of the mouse on any element of this tree, the menu will jump out. From below it is written Properties - having chosen this point you will change properties of the person chosen by you, to finish something about it. From above it is written: New mate, new parents, new son, new daughter - having chosen this point of the menu, you can add the new spouse to this person, add parents, the son or the daughter. Having chosen point of menu Family wizard, you can add at once one more spouse (spouse) and children from this marriage.
    Below the line it is written Link as a parent, link as a child. Having chosen this point of the menu you can attach this person to someone as the parent or the child (this point is required when you already will have a big tree).
    Perhaps, it sounds and it is difficult, but actually it is extremely simple, slightly having experimented, you will master this program in perfection.

    To check up, whether plausible it has turned out родословие, it is necessary to apply genealogy laws to its results. In each following generation the number of ancestors doubles (it the law of doubling of number of ancestors) is called, but thus on big enough time distance this law does not operate, a part of ancestors of the people marrying, appear the general (it is called the law of decrease of ancestors). If it is found six or eight generations of ancestors, the law of three generations should operate already - activity of each three generations should keep within hundred years (however hardly you have reached such degrees on the basis of inquiries).

    What for all it is necessary for you?
    At everyone the reason for studying of history of a family, it is frequent it completely it is not realised, then the person answers a corresponding question - simply interestingly, it would be desirable и.т.п. But to achieve such results which will satisfy you, it is necessary to understand absolutely precisely, what subconscious motives you движут.
    People often hesitate of own motives and the purposes, therefore corresponding techniques are developed for their revealing. I also will offer one of them to you, is exclusive because she does not demand extraneous participation and any expenses. There are ways much more difficult and pseudoscientific.
    It will occupy week. Five days, every evening you sit down to table in loneliness, take the handle and a sheet of paper (or sit down the computer, open the text editor) and within five minutes (or ten if you are sluggish) as soon as possible, without re-reading, write, that you would like in connection with genealogy, related communications, knowledge of the ancestors and all interconnected areas. It is not necessary to concentrate and think, the purpose - to write as soon as possible and more and to stop, even on the word middle when taken away time will end. Then turn off a paper and clean in a table (keep a file and close). At all do not read! Do not limit itself if casually will write that wish to grow thin in connection with genealogy for 20 kilogrammes and to buy a new fishing tackle, in it there is nothing terrible or silly, on that it and the analysis. And so five days. For the sixth day, read, delete nothing and do not erase, reduce all together (therefore the computer more conveniently, it is final), dividing into themes. Any conclusions do not do. Read, be surprised and go to bed. And only for the seventh day analyze, look, in what theme most of all points and then define the overall objective. Be not surprised, if it is not connected at all with genealogy. In this case you simply do not need to be limited to genealogy, well, for example, if the purpose of your employment - to bring up from the child harmoniously developed person.
    In day of seventh five or ten minutes to you will not suffice, because it is yet final stage.
    You need to isolate the purposes from the overall objective concrete, clear to all associates and you personally, and quite achievable, let and not soon.
    I can tell, what specific goals turned out at Americans what at them thus was an overall objective - they kept not important, main purpose around.
    So, examples of specific goals:
    Time in five years to collect all members of the family in specially removed hotel on the bank of lake.
    To create at nearby school a museum of history of area with genealogical trees of all pupils.
    To create personal fund in a museum.
    To establish an own house museum on family stories.
    To become all recognised генеалогом on the surname.
    To transform family history into a way of increase of well-being of all members of a family so that all whom you treat kindly, constantly received the additional income.
    It is not necessary to copy another's purposes and to say that you too it want all - specific goals should follow from the main.
    Having allocated a specific goal, it is necessary to break its achievement into stages and directions, to make the plan and to start its performance. The more small there will be stages, the it will be more pleasant to carry out the plan - movement will be better considerably.

    What you for the person?

    Question very important - after all your results should suit you.
    You can have poetic or rationalistic perception of a life, propensity all to touch or examine from apart, you can like more texts, pictures or real subjects. You can be sociable or closed.
    How to define the properties I to you I will not tell, I hope, you and so them know. So you will give the answer to this question to yourselves, I will tell about several ways of registration of the results which have been thought up, besides, by Americans.

    Variants of registration of results

    I was most of all surprised with a way with caskets.
    For each ancestor the casket is got. Any documents keep within it (not all), any photos, letters, subjects. Sense in that, having opened a casket to feel time touch, to understand that for the person there was this ancestor. Result of genealogical researches in this case - a case filled with caskets which can be opened with love.
    The unique woman has thought up a group family photo, is not assured that somebody has repeated its experiment, it even is difficult for describing. In the course of researches she necessarily searched for images of the ancestors and relatives. Then it has ordered in a workshop a wooden box, without a forward wall, but with a cover into which glasses (on number of generations which it was going to find were vertically inserted). On each glass it pasted photos of ancestors from this generation, inserted them into a framework and admired crowd of the ancestors and relatives from all generations at once. I do not know, what she thus pursued the global aim. Probably, it was simply very lonely.
    The variants assuming release of books (the purpose - reception of the income or income reception is simple to organise a meeting of relatives) are curious enough.
    The genealogy in the pure state is thus investigated not, and family history as a whole, some unique elements on which basis books are written come to light. Some of them became best sellers.
    For example, the family recipe-book can include not only recipes as those, but also stories how this recipe in a family has appeared, whence undertook components and as well as why they varied in due course. Stories about traditions of joint holidays, how celebratory dinners were organised there can enter. Recipes of preparations for the winter can include stories about traditions of gathering or cultivation of the products necessary for this purpose. Family photos will make this book of the extremely picturesque.
    Examples of books making to the big success about any craft traditions (with photos of members of the family which are carrying out the necessary actions) are known.
    That is for Americans it is books how something to do, with a considerable quantity of photos more often, but there are also exceptions. For example, if someone from members of a family the artist, and all the others possess sense of humour, there can be a book of comics about entertaining adventures of a family during all its known history.
    If the purpose of researches - to come into contact to children, more often children involve in gathering of the information and registration of results, here it is absolutely not important, which will be result (is better, lodge a way of registration the child will think up), process is important here. The child, of course, cannot work in archives, but it can photograph and scan, work with computer programs, interrogate relatives and write down results on the tape recorder, with it it is possible to go home ancestors, to sit at a table and to assort the found treasures and so on and so forth. Often within the limits of this purpose parents will organise at school where their child, a genealogy circle studies.
    If the purpose - to come into contact to relatives (with all or with a part), more often Americans are engaged in manufacturing of genealogical gifts and souvenirs to various dates and anniversaries. Someone is engaged in it independently, making in the single copy the book with the text and засканированными photos. Someone addresses to professionals and gives on birthdays family trees in frames for posting on a wall. Variants of gifts are extremely numerous. Business reaches even gilding of the first a boot of the baby-great-grandmother which by miracle have remained about one today. I do not sneer at all, it is a real example.
    Everything, will suffice examples.
    Having realised the purpose, you will think up weight of ways of registration of results.

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